Niki Charitable Art Foundation is happy to announce its partnership with local outreach programs to bring art lessons to elementary and middle schools in San Diego, California. This endeavor has been carefully planned over the last couple of years as active fulfillment of Niki de Saint Phalle’s Educational Purpose for the NCAF:
“[…] responsibilities shall include donating excess financial resources to charitable or educational programs that give children, particularly the with little or no exposure to art, the chance to experience art so that it may grow and flower in their imagination.”
Through our partnerships with ArtCORPS and ArtReach, the Niki Charitable Art Foundation is able to fund and teach art lessons to Title I schools, grades TK-8th, all throughout San Diego. During the 2019-2020 school year we serve a total of 4 schools, and 38 class rooms; as well as offer professional development to Teaching Artists providing lesson plan suggestions and project brainstorming.
Upcoming for 2020, we will be teaching in three more schools, through our partners ArtReach and ArtCORPS. There is a school wide sculpture lesson planned for a local Visual and Performing Arts School, with special modifications made for each participating grade. We will also be facilitating printmaking and bookmaking projects with two more local elementary schools.
In addition to teaching, NCAF has also led and provided a professional development workshop for current teaching artists through our partnership with ArtReach. Through this workshop, artists had the opportunity to practice their own creative skills and exchange lesson plan ideas and techniques with each other, thus providing technical and professional support to colleagues.
Looking for Lesson Plans on Niki de Saint Phalle? Our website posts publication suggestions that help with lesson planning, and furthermore aims to be a hub for your creative lesson plans to be shared.
We are looking forward to continuing our growth in facilitating art education.
“I learned that when you work with good natured people, who are honest with their work, we strive to make the most of what we can do for them…with Niki we always move forward.”
Robert Haligon. Interview with Philippe Ungar. 12 July 2009
Niki de Saint Phalle had many “work families” throughout her artistic career. The first of these, which also became one of the longest and most important working relationships she had, was with the Haligon family. Over a period of approximately 25 years, this family of artisans helped Saint Phalle create around 3,000 sculptures, from large scale outdoor pieces of art to smaller multiples.
The Haligondynasty began in the 1800’s, starting with sculptor Luis Haligon. The family business was passed down generation to generation, until Robert Haligon took over in 1948 due to the death of his father. The art studio which was originally located in Paris-Montparnasse, France was moved to Périgny-sur-Yerres. It was there that Robert Haligon, along with wife Arlette, evolved the techniques used by the generations that came before them. They began to reproduce, as well as enlarge sculptures.
The Haligons have four children who work in various capacities in the business; Olivier, Gerard, Marie, and Agnes. Gerard took over his parents’ workshop in 1994, while Olivier opened his own studio in Miami, Florida in 1998. Marie, the in-house painter at the studio since 1989, is a specialist in the reproduction of hand painting. Meanwhile the youngest sibling Agnes assists in the management of the workshop as well as the follow-up and maintenance of the technical documentation of the works.
Robert Haligon first saw the work of Saint Phalle at the 1967 Montreal World Expo. She had completed Paradis Fantastique with Jean Tinguely, which is a set of nine monumental sculptures and six machines placed as a sculpture garden on the roof of the French Pavilion. Robert and Arlette Haligon had already embarked on the adventure of using laminated resin with artists César, Dubuffet, and Mirò. In that moment, the pair understood the interest and advantages that this new material could represent for Saint Phalle. Robert Haligon didn’t know it at the time, but later he would have the job of restoring these same sculptures in Stockholm.
In 1971 Saint Phalle set up a meeting with Robert Haligon at her studio. She asked Robert to make molds for three of her sculptures, originally patterned in clay, and he proposed to make them from resin instead of the more traditional plaster. Saint Phalle was very happy with the result and there began a collaboration that lasted for a quarter of a century.
“Working with Niki was always something intense. So whatever small thing, big thing, or personal thing it was intense and extraordinary.”
Robert Haligon. Interview with Philippe Ungar. 12 July 2009
Saint Phalle kept the Haligons busy with constant projects; whether it be enlarging maquettes into life size sculptures or reproducing smaller sized sculpture editions, vases, etc.
For the process of making editions, Saint Phalle created a sculpture in clay with which Robert could produce a mold and a prototype in plaster or resin. Saint Phalle painted the prototype that served as the sample piece for the reproduction of 8 to 12 more sculptures, in resin, with the same colors and design. It was important for her that the reproduction felt as though she herself made the piece. Therefore, Saint Phalle personally trained Marie Haligon, helping her understand the spirit, style, and requirements of the art. Saint Phalle trusted Marie Haligon and her remarkable skills to reproduce the painting style and colors that are so recognizably Saint Phalle’s.
Robert Haligon remembers that the work atmosphere with Saint Phalle was very harmonious and trusting. He explained that, because Saint Phalle was so very confident in his ability to execute her artistic vision, that there was very little need for communication or explanation.
They would either work at his studio in Périgny-sur-Yerres or he would go to her studio. Models would be prepared and transported to his studio for the reproduction process. There were many updates and reports sent via faxes, adorned with Saint Phalle’s drawings and unique handwriting. Saint Phalle and the entire Haligon family became very close; she would lunch at Périgny-sur-Yerres. Their mealtime conversations ranged from typical work issues to more personal subjects, such as family, children and even politics.
In terms of technique, Saint Phalle’s approach was always changing and improving. Robert Haligon recalls that Saint Phalle was not a fan of shiny paints. She liked to use Flashe because it dried with a matte finish. When he did reproductions for her, they had to be done in the same painted format. The outdoor sculptures, on the other hand, needed shiny paint because matte paint was destroyed very quickly when exposed to the corrosive agents of the atmosphere. Haligon remembers that she had to first get used to the idea of the outdoor sculptures being shiny. In time she decided “But you know what, the shiny looks good outdoors”. This was the start of her using mirrors on the outdoor sculptures because, as Saint Phalle said “Since it must be brilliant, it will be brilliant”. As he explained it, Saint Phalle was a person who was open to everything and she adjusted very well to the required techniques.
When Saint Phalle moved to the United States permanently, for health reasons their collaboration diminished but their close relationship remained. Robert Haligon and his wife visited her in San Diego where they spent the time reminiscing about their years long collaborations and enjoyed the time with each other.
Robert Haligon collaborated with Saint Phalle on pieces such as the Stravinsky Fountain, Chateau Chinon, The Serpent Tree, Temple of All Religions, Ricardo Cat, and some smaller sculptures at the Tarot Garden.
When Gerard Haligon took over the family business, he assisted Saint Phalle with many sculptures as well. Amongst them were the Three Graces Fountain, Ganesh,and the Rhinoceros.
Before leaving for Miami, Oliver Haligon also took part in fabricating Saint Phalle’s monumental works in resin, at his studio in Paris, that were then painted at Robert Haligon’s studio. Such was the case for Nana Bloum 6 meters.
The Gerard Haligon Studio, now named Art and Concept is the official restorer for Niki de Saint Phalle artworks. In March 2010, Gerard and Sylvie Haligon were awarded the title of master craftsman in crafts by the French Chamber of Trades and Crafts.
“She impressed the world by her tenacity, and her courage, and her willingness to make everything in the best way possible.”
Robert Haligon. Interview with Philippe Ungar. 12 July 2009
Niki Charitable Art Foundation would like to thank the Haligon family for their insight and help with this blog.
"If I had to define myself it wouldn’t be as an artist but as an achiever of dreams"
Niki de Saint Phalle
2019 marks the 50th anniversary of Niki de Saint Phalle beginning to build her first major permanent architectural venture, Le Rêve de L’Oiseau (The Bird’s Dream). This project consists of three sculpture houses, built in the Var region of the south of France, for her friend Rainer von Hessen. LeRêve de L’Oiseau was somewhat shrouded in mystery for a long time. Saint Phalle rarely spoke about the project as Hessen wanted to avoid public attention, allowing him to live there in privacy. Her archives held photos of the construction, under the obscure title 3 pavillons, literature was hard to find and mostly in French, and even the surrounding townsfolk initially had no idea what was being built on the property.
“I have always had a dream of doing architectural things. It started with my sculptures getting bigger and bigger.”
Niki de Saint Phalle, The Miami Herald, March 1974
Rainer von Hessen and Niki de Saint Phalle met after he saw a photo of HON, the 1966 installation for Moderna Museet Stockholm, in a German magazine and was intrigued. Their collaborations started when Saint Phalle first designed the costumes and sets to Aristhophanes’s Lysistrata, directed by Hessen (then known under the stage name Diez). Thereafter, Hessen co-authored and directed her play ICH, which was performed at the Staatstheater Kassel in 1968.
Hessen approached Saint Phalle with an idea the same year: “I wanted to build myself a summer retreat. […] I wanted, instead of living in a closed house with everything under one roof, rather to walk through nature in order to get from one room to the next.”
The concept of the three houses was born: a living space, a kitchen, and an “artsy” outhouse. First sketches and models were created in 1968, and elements from the set designs of ICH, as well as Last Night I had a Dream and were applied. Later, Saint Phalle and Hessen assembled their team that helped make TheBird’sDream come true, among them Jean Tinguely, Rico Weber and Gilles Margo-Duclot.
To make these fantastical houses Saint Phalle and Hessen covered the basic structures that Hessen had built on his property with chicken wire to create the desired shape. The reliefs they created were then coated with polyester in Paris and applied to the houses. Since its toxic fumes became a serious threat to the artist’s health, Hessen asked the local mason to continue the work with concrete. Saint Phalle learned valuable lessons from this process that she would use in later architectural projects, such as the Golem or Tarot Garden. The enormous sculptures were created from the ground up. The often curvy, rounded shapes were constructed by first welding together metal rods and then covered with chicken wire and sprayed with concrete.
“I love roundness, curves, waves… The world is round, the world is a breast. I don’t like right angles. They scare me.”
Niki de Saint Phalle, Niki de Saint Phalle: Un Rȇve d’ Architecte, 2014
Each sculpture house is unique with distinctive features.
The Bird’s Dream is a kitchen
A large bird with its wings spread on the kitchen roof gives the sculptural group its name. The bird is an iconographic element from ICH and used by Saint Phalle consistently in her work. The outside dining area consists of seating built into one cave-like wall, while the dining table takes the shape of a mushroom. On another outside wall, a dragon is menacing a couple in bed. Next to the plant-shaped front door with a spider, a Nana cook is welcoming visitors with a shopping bag in her hand. Dimensions: width 5.9m; depth 4.8m; height 4.5m
The Sorceress hides a water closet inside
This structure is covered with long wavy hair, painted with shiny metallic paint, that extends to the ground. The flooring inside is covered with glass mosaic. Once construction completed, Saint Phalle decided that she did not like the square metal door, and wanted it changed. Her wish was fulfilled in the course of a restoration. Dimensions: width 6.0m; depth: 4.7m; height: 4.2m
Big Clarice is the sleeping space
The original idea for the living area was the shape of a Sphinx. It was not realized due to financial limitations. Instead, Jean Tinguely proposed that the structure housing the bedroom is shaped with Saint Phalle’s signature Nana form. The breasts of the Nana serve as two children’s bedrooms, which can be accessed by a ladder staircase. There is a bathroom with a giant Nana-shaped bathtub. The name of the house became Big Clarice, after one of Saint Phalle’s close friends, Clarice Rivers. Dimensions: width 9.5m; depth 5.0m; height 7.0m
The original design of the Sphinx would be used 10 years later to build the Empress in Niki de Saint Phalle’s Tarot Garden. The Bird ’s Dream became, in more than one respect, a precursor of the artists’ major work in Italy.
“Niki de Saint Phalle goes from sculpture to architecture, it
inserts works in the nature and not in a museum, and they feel
Niki de Saint Phalle, Le Monde, September 2014
As with most of Saint Phalle’s art, these summer homes caused controversy amongst the townspeople. Some questioned the validity of these homes as art, referenced in local articles titled: “Niki de Saint Phalle’s Challenge of Plan-de-la-Tour: Worthy of Pornography Carnival or the Museum of Modern Art” (Le Provençal, January 1972) and “These Monsters in the Heart of Provence: Houses that amuse or scandalize” (France-Soir L’Intransigeant, August 1971).
In 2007 LeRêve de L’Oiseau was awarded the distinction Patrimoine de XXe siecle; a label given to architectural projects of the 20th century that embody cultural heritage. One year later, the entire property of LeRêve de L’Oiseau was listed, by the Ministry of Culture, as a Historical Landmark (Monument Historique Classé).
Also in 2008, Rainer von Hessen transferred the deed to this property to the family of Sybille and Jean-Marc Heftler-Louiche, through a 95 years long term lease. After that, it shall return to the Société des Amis du Rȇve de L’Oiseau, a non-profit association which has been created for this purpose.
Extensive restorations have been executed on this 13 hectare (30 acre) property, since 2008. The property is not, for the time being, open to the public.
Interested in learning more about Niki de Saint Phalle’s architectural projects?
The Niki Charitable Art Foundation would like to thank both Rainer von Hessen and Jean-Marc Heftler-Louiche for their insight and help with this blog.
Niki de Saint Phalle’s Tarot Garden, Il Giardino Dei Tarocchi, is celebrating its 20th anniversary this year. For many years before its opening, people would just walk in and many met Saint Phalle there, working, having tea, or overseeing the construction. The garden was officially opened to the public in May of 1998, the project having started in the late 70’s and ending upon Saint Phalle’s passing in 2002. The Tarot Garden Foundation was established in 1997. Its mission is to maintain and preserve this monumental work of art.
Many people helped Niki de Saint Phalle build her masterpiece. A number of the original crew continued working with the Tarot Garden Foundation, Ugo Celletti, Antonio Urtis, Marco Iacotonio, Claudio Celletti, Gian Piero Ottavi, and Alessia Celletti. Ugo Celletti was the local postman and slowly started helping in the garden, eventually taking on a great number of tasks. He remained working in the garden until his passing in 2016.
“He began by making stone paths, and then graduate to putting
wire mesh on the iron sculptures to receive cement, Later, Ugo
would ask me to try his hand at putting the mirrors on the
sculptures. He has become a poet of putting on mirrors.”
Excerpt quote of Niki de Saint Phalle
Since opening, additional members have joined, Fabio Mancini, Massimo Menchetti, Alessandro Celletti, Dario Fortunato, Giulia Celletti, Giuseppina Fini.
When Saint Phalle passed in 2002 all new work on the sculptures ceased. The focus turned to conservation, maintenance, restoration, and management of keeping the garden safe and efficient. Conservation is the main focus. With laws having changed in Europe regarding manufacturing of mirrors, new problems have surfaced with the replacement of some mirrors. Small stone walls were added near the back of the garden to help redirect rain runoff to avoid soil being carried away. The walls help redirect the water to preserve the garden’s landscape and paths. A well is to be added to draw water which will be utilized for irrigation of the garden’s plants. “Don’t Smoke” signs, also written in French, Italian and German, were added throughout the garden this past June due to the number of cigarette butts that were littering the grounds.
“Don’t Smoke” signs in the Tarot Garden, Photo: Alessandro Celletti
Another addition to the garden is a cafe pavilion that currently is under construction. The cafe was designed by architect Mario Botta. He also designed the entrance wall to the Tarot Garden back in 1997. Botta graciously designed this in memory of his beautiful friendship with Niki de Saint Phalle. The pavilion will be used for reception and cafe services for visitors as early as March 2019.
“I asked my friend Mario Botta to make the entrance of the garden
in contrast to what was inside. Mario made a masculine fortress-
like wall of local stones, which marks clearly the separation of
the world without and the world within.”
Quote of Niki de Saint Phalle
The number of visitors coming to the Tarot Garden has increased exponentially since it’s opening. During its first year in 1998, the garden had just over 18,200 visitors. By 2007 the park was receiving roughly 54,000 guests and by 2017 attendance had jumped to 109,900. With the significant increase in guests, focus has been on maintaining the sculptures, paths, and greenery of the garden to ensure Niki de Saint Phalle’s vision and concept, along with the visitors’ safety. The Tarot Garden is also considering opening earlier in the day during July and August to accommodate the increase in guests to the garden. In 2017 the parking lot was expanded for the same reason. Various solutions are being considered in order to preserve the experience of the Tarot Garden. With the sometimes heavy influx of people, the esoteric aspect of the experience is diminished.
While no work can be done within the garden, there is one sculpture that is allowed to be moved, namely the Fool. His tarot card represents a new beginning in a journey, not knowing what to expect but with an unlimited potential.
“The Fool’s number is 0, no number, but for me 0 is a number. The
Fool in the tarot deck is as strong as all the other cards put
together. Why? Because he represents man on his spiritual quest. Not knowing where he is going, the Fool is ready to discover. He is the hero of the fairy tales who appears dim witted but is able
to find the “treasure” where others have failed.”
Excerpt quote of Niki de Saint Phalle, The Tarot Garden book
Saint Phalle would change The Fool’s location, and had moved him twice in the past. He is currently installed by The World. He may be moved again in the future to keep him wandering, or not. His current placement reminds one of the current world migrations now happening due to war and climate change.
The Tarot Foundation is also working on arranging small concerts to be held at the Tarot Garden. In 2000 a surprise birthday party was held for Niki de Saint Phalle at the Emperor’s Castle. Niki de Saint Phalle’s friend Marie-France Pestel-Debord, vice president of the Tarot Garden Foundation, organized for a band to play in the courtyard. Saint Phalle wanted concerts to continue being a part of the Tarot Garden and the Foundation plans to arrange some to happen in the near future.
Stills from Niki de Saint Phalle’s birthday celebration, 1999
During her lifetime, Niki de Saint Phalle produced a number of fan articles and merchandise to fund her projects. Most of her projects during the 90’s were done to specifically fund the Tarot Garden. In a similar way, the Tarot Garden Foundation does the same to remain sustainable. One of those items Saint Phalle had created were inflatable nanas, of all shapes and sizes. With the help of the Niki Charitable Art Foundation and the company Jet Creations, the Tarot Garden is now selling again one style of Saint Phalle’s nanas. Different shapes and sizes are expected to be added during the coming year. The shop will also be adding puzzles and a children activity book.
Nana inflatable, Niki Charitable Art Foundation
A detailed chronology, “Niki de Saint Phalle and the Tarot Garden” was published by Benteli in 2010. Authors Marella Caracciolo Chia and Jill Johnston share memories and facts about the gardens 20 years of construction. The text is accompanied by photos Giulio Pietromarchi took over the years. The book has been published in English, French, and Italian, and is available at the Tarot Garden or online through the publisher’s website (https://www.benteli.ch/en/art/the-tarot-garden-luxury-edition.html).
In 2015 the Tarot Garden’s website received a major update. You can view the website in English, Italian, French, and German. An interactive map provides more information about each sculpture and its placement in the garden. Have feedback for the Tarot Garden? You can go to the website (http://ilgiardinodeitarocchi.it/en/contact/) and share your thoughts with the Tarot Garden Foundation! It’s been 20 years since the Tarot Garden officially opened to the public. With more and more people discovering Niki de Saint Phalle’s Il Giardino Dei Tarocchi, the Tarot Garden Foundation will continue to maintain and conserve it, so visitors can enter and become immersed in a part of Saint Phalle’s magical world.
“Cimetière Montparnasse”, the famous cemetery in Paris, was established in 1824. It is the resting place of many artists, poets, authors, and intellectuals. It is also where two of Niki de Saint Phalle’s friends, Ricardo Menon and Jean-Jacques Goetzman, are buried. Saint Phalle created sculptures to be installed at their graves. Both men were HIV positive and died of AIDS.
Niki de Saint Phalle was very involved in the fight against AIDS. In 1986 she published the book, AIDS: You Can’t Catch It Holding Hands in English and later in French, German, Japanese, and Italian. In 1990 and 1991 she participated in the creation of a series of animated public service announcements for France Sécurité Sociale. She did so with her son, Philip Mathews, to help raise awareness about the disease. By this time a number of Saint Phalle’s friends had been diagnosed with AIDS and funerals had sadly become all too frequent.
A Cat For Ricardo
Ricardo was Niki de Saint Phalle’s assistant for ten years. He worked with her in the Tarot Garden, eventually living in the Tower of Babel. He introduced her to the ceramicist, Venera Finocchiaro, who later made all the ceramics for the Tarot Garden. When she experienced debilitating arthritis, Ricardo would feed, carry, and bathe her. They shared an incredibly strong bond. Saint Phalle often warned Ricardo about AIDS worrying that he would catch the virus.
“Ricardo was very close to her and… you know sometimes you have
relationships with people that are even closer than the people
that you are with physically.”
Quote from interview with Ted Tourtelotte, NCAF Archives
Ricardo introduced a fellow Argentinian, Marcelo Zitelli, to Saint Phalle who later became her next assistant. Ricardo left the Tarot Garden and returned to France, not telling Saint Phalle that he had contracted AIDS. It wasn’t until two years later, once he was hospitalized, that she found out.
“Today, when I think of him tears come to my eyes. I wished I had
BEEN THERE FOR HIM… Ricardo YOU FOOL. WHY DIDN’T YOU TELL ME???
I know you wanted to shield me, but we BOTH SUFFERED MORE- You
alone with your SECRET and me unable to ease your torments.”
Except from Niki de Saint Phalle’s writings
Niki de Saint Phalle found Ricardo to be like a cat, proud, mysterious, and sexy. When he was dying in the hospital she promised him she would make a cat sculpture in his honor and place it on his tomb. He liked the idea and she set about securing an honorable and memorable place for him to be buried.
“I realized a few days ago that when RICARDO DIED, it was the
beginning of a long DEPRESSION for me. I gave up a lot of things.
Not consciously but little by little… I was simply CRUCIFYING
myself, IDENTIFYING with my young friends who had died from AIDS.”
Except from Niki de Saint Phalle’s writings, NCAF Archives
The death of Ricardo was particularly traumatic for both Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely. Saint Phalle started on the sculpture that would sit on Ricardo’s grave, slowly working through her depression. On the other hand, Tinguely focused on the issues surrounding the end of life. He began preparing for his own death. He stopped taking his medication and ignored his body’s health, dying two years later in 1991. The stone in front of the Ricardo Cat sculpture reads, “Pour notre grand ami Ricardo mort trop tôt jeune, aimé, et beau” (For our great friend Ricardo died too young, loved, and beautiful). There is a similar sculpture at the Tarot Garden so Saint Phalle could keep Ricardo close.
Chat de Ricardo, 1989
A Bird For Jean-Jacques
When Niki de Saint Phalle first met Jean-Jacques it was through another friend, Geoffrey Humphrey, who also died of AIDS. Jean-Jacques had already been diagnosed with the virus and was Humphrey’s roommate at an AIDS housing complex. Jean-Jacques also met Niki de Saint Phalle’s son, Philip Matthews, who took care of him before his death. Jean-Jacques had lived a very hard and troubled life. He began writing an autobiography with Philip’s help. They went to New York where Jean-Jacques witnessed a gay couple openly holding hands. He was brought to tears having never experienced such freedom for gay couples. When Jean-Jacques died in 1992 Niki de Saint Phalle decided to make a sculpture for his grave. She likened Jean-Jacques to a bird. She considered that he met an unhappy ending to an already miserable life and decided to create a mosaic mirror bird in his honor.
“Unfortunately all my birds have unhappy endings… Birds are
messengers from our world to the next. My Guardian Angel is
Excerpt from The Wounded Animals by Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle had Marcelo create the metal part of the sculpture from Jean Tinguely’s scrap metal stash. The metal of the sculpture resembles the human body and the suffering, transforming to the mirrored bird that flies away in a spiritual state. His grave reads, “A mon Ami Jean-Jacques un oiseau qui s’est envolé trop tôt” (To my friend Jean-Jacques who flew away too early).
Oiseau pour Jean-Jacques, 1998
Ricardo Menon and Jean-Jacques Goetzman were only two among many of Niki de Saint Phalle’s friends that died of AIDS. Saint Phalle expressed her feelings and emotions through her art and that was no different with Chat de Ricardo and Oiseau pour Jean-Jacques. The smiling, colorful cat covered in hearts and flowers echoes the love Niki de Saint Phalle had for her assistant. The mirrored bird reflects the light and sky, a freedom from the harsh, angular, rusting metal and the suffering of her friend. If you visit Montparnasse, you can see both sculptures dedicated to the two men that died too early and left a hole in an artist’s life.
The Chelsea Hotel in New York City was home to a number of artists, writers, and musicians. The red brick building that sits on 23d street rented rooms both by the day and by the month. During the 60’s you could rent a workshop for $300 a month, or a room for $8 a day. This attracted a wide range of individuals from Mark Twain to Bob Dylan, as well as several artist like Andy Warhol and a number of the Nouveaux Réalistes like Yves Klein, Arman, Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle. It was where Saint Phalle stayed for a time in 1962 and again between 1964-65, creating several pieces while she was there.
“From the beginning of its life as a hotel, it attracted a
creative clientele drawn by the noise-resistant space to work and
play in… The hotel is steeped in odd memories and a touching
sense of cultural continuity.”
Except from Smithsonian, December 1983
The Hotel Chelsea, New York City, 2012
After her show at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam in 1962, Niki de Saint Phalle returned to New York and took up residence at the Chelsea Hotel. She began working on one of her shooting paintings, “Gorgo in New York” that was shown at the Alexander Iolas Gallery later that year. It became a part of the Menil Collection and was later gifted to the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston.
Gorgo in New York, Niki de Saint Phalle, 1962
Niki de Saint Phalle left the Chelsea Hotel in 1963 and moved with Jean Tinguely to France. It wasn’t until late 1964 that she returned to the hotel and both artists rented rooms, Saint Phalle renting two as she began producing a great number of pieces.
“Permanent and semi-permanent constitute the aristocracy of
artistic emigration. First, because they can afford to stay in
America or come and go. This coming and going is the true
luxury of consecration: Arman, Tinguely, Niki de Saint-Phalle
and Martial Raysse practice this sport in particular.”
Excerpt from Art Loisirs, December 1966
In early 1965, a number of Saint Phalle’s pieces still are made of found objects and toys. The Bride and Astarte’s Wake are two pieces Niki de Saint Phalle created where she still uses these materials but where we also see fabrics introduced.
While staying at the Chelsea Hotel, Niki de Saint Phalle wrote to her friend Pontus Hulten saying she was “working like a tiger”! When he came to visit in March 1965, he was amazed to see the amount of work Saint Phalle was producing. She continued working with fabric and yarn, glueing the pieces with great intricacy and detail. She created patterns without paint, laying out bands of color that swirled and curved across the figures, seeing the birth of Saint Phalle’s early Nanas.
Clipping from New York Herald Tribune, March 1965
“Her sculptures don’t contain a smudge of marble, clay, or stone
used by square chiselers. Instead, her figures are made of
chicken-wire, fabric, plastic, paper, and glue — strictly from
Displaysville… her studio is at the Chelsea Hotel on W. 23d
Street - in the heart of New York’s display industry. I told Niki
she should try her hand at window mannequins. They might
not fit into size 12 dresses, but they’d stop traffic.”
Excerpt Quote from Women’s Wear Daily, April 1965
During this time, Niki de Saint Phalle was further inspired by her friend Clarice Rivers. Clarice and her husband, artist Larry Rivers, lived in the Southampton’s on Long Island while Clarice was pregnant in late 1964. It was late spring of 1965 that Saint Phalle made a number of the Nanas, with Clarice’s pregnancy having inspired her. Niki de Saint Phalle also did a collaborative piece with Larry Rivers. Rivers drew Clarice in profile with a full pregnant belly that Saint Phalle then filled in with a collage of colorful strips of paper and cut out images. This piece was later given to Clarice’s daughter, Gwendolyn.
[Portrait de Clarice Rivers enceinte], Niki de Saint Phalle & Larry Rivers 1964
“You know I was her inspiration for the Nanas… the first one, the
upside-down Nana for instance, might have been the first one and
it was very sturdy and a big belly and… I think solid enough to
stand on your head sort of thing. I like that interpretation and
then there were all kinds of Nanas.”
Quote of Clarice Rivers about Niki de Saint Phalle’s Nanas
In August 1965, Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely leave the Chelsea Hotel. Saint Phalle returned to her home in France while Jean Tinguely traveled to Brazil with Pontus Hulten. When the two men returned to France, the workshop had been completely taken over by Nanas. In September of that same year that Saint Phalle’s Nanas are exhibited for the first time at the Alexandre Iolas Gallery in Paris.
While Saint Phalle worked on her sculptures in 1965, photographer Yves Debraine visited the hotel and documented a number of artists staying there. An exhibit, “Chelsea Hotel, New York 1965” is now open at Espace Jean Tinguely – Niki de Saint Phalle Museum of Art and History in Fribourg, Germany through September. A number of Debraine’s photographs show Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely during their stay at the Chelsea Hotel.
In August 2011 the Chelsea Hotel closed for renovations. With several owner changes since then and construction complications due to tenants still occupying a number of units, the work has been slow going. The Chelsea Hotel plans on maintaining a hotel-residential mix, even keeping some rooms in their original state, for example the preservation of the unit once inhabited by poet Dylan Thomas. However, after years of renovation work and hurdles, the hotel plans to reopen sometime this year.
In Île-de-France, just north of the town Milly-la-Forêt, is the small town of Dannemois. In 1970 Jean Tinguely purchased a large house there, and Niki de Saint Phalle and he stayed for several years while constructing Le Cyclop. The “Commanderie”, also known as “La Louvetière”, once belonged to an Order of the Templars. Intrigued by the mysticism of the property, Saint Phalle and Tinguely searched the house for the Templars’ treasures, but never found any. They did, however, find secret passages that led out of the village and another that went to the church. During WWII the house was used as a field hospital. Between the templars and its more recent history, guests staying with Saint Phalle and Tinguely always felt the house was haunted.
The village is most famous because it is where Claude Francois, a french pop singer lived. When he died in 1978 he was buried in the Municipal Cemetery of Dannemois, just across the street from the artists’ house. It is the second most visited cemetery in France after Père Lachaise. A portion of Francois’ property has been turned into a museum, where visitors can see parts of the garden, the water mill, and his living room. Many residents of the town knew of Claude Francois but not necessarily of Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely. The city council and a few individuals came together and decided to change that.
The house “La Commanderie” became a kind of headquarters for a number of artists. Eighteen of them were involved in the Cyclop project including Eva Aeppli, Bernhard Luginbühl, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Larry Rivers, and Daniel Spoerri.
Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely in Dannemois, 1973, Photo: Laurent Condominas
Other artists, as well as race car drivers, also came to visit the pair in Dannemois, like Keith Haring, Jacky Ickx, and Niki Lauda. Keith Haring recalls his visit to the LeCyclop and “La Commanderie” in his journal.
“Niki takes us to the forest near her house to see the “head”
Jean and the others have been working on for 15 years. It’s
really incredible — huge and actually has movable parts. It’s
better than Disneyland. You can walk inside of it and climb
stairs all through it… She also takes us to Jean’s house where
she used to live also. It is a really old (medieval) castle
with sheep running around outside.”
Excerpt quote from Keith Haring Journals, July 1987
Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely worked on a number of projects besides Le Cyclop while in Dannemois. Both films “Nana Island” and “Un rêve plus long que la nuit” were made while the pair was there. Niki de Saint Phalle wrote the script for “Nana Island” and constructed the sets; Jean Tinguely constructed the men’s costumes but the film was never completed. “Un rêve plus long que la nuit” was a completed 90 minute film, directed by Fréderic Rossif and Niki de Saint Phalle. Saint Phalle also wrote the script and designed the sets, while Jean Tinguely conceived the machines.
In recent years, the town of Dannemois has put into motion a project to better the communal buildings and put the spotlight on Saint Phalle and Tinguely. In 2014 the team began campaigning their plans and in 2015 were elected into city council and started funding. Their project consisted of renovating and combining the school and village hall, renovating the old town hall, and creating a village square once all the communal building we linked. The space was to become a place for culture, exhibitions, and discussion. They also wanted it to be a space to enrich students and offer extracurricular activities for them.
The city council decided this would also be the opportunity to bring attention to Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely and tie in the importance of the two artists. The old town hall will be renovated and called “Maison de la Culture” (The House of Culture). It sits right across the street from “La Commanderie”.
“We could not imagine a better scenario since the future “House
of Culture" faces the Louvetière, like a glance at destiny.”
Quote from Monique Paillet, Deputy Mayor of Dannemois
A group of kids are also honoring the artists by working on a collaborative art project together. The children decided to create a bench out of four separate chairs. Each chair would represent a season and they would paint them, assemble the chairs together, and then add additional pieces of wood and metal to create new shapes. The children were inspired by artists’ bright colors, fantasy, and importance of nature and are incorporating those ideas into their designs for the bench.
Children painting chairs, Photo: Dannemois.fr
While the children are still working on their bench and work on the buildings are progressing quickly, the project is set to be finished any day now. Niki de Saint Phalle’s and Jean Tinguely’s signatures will also be incorporated into the project for guests to see as they enter the space. The House of Culture will have its inauguration on January 28, 2018. The Niki Charitable Art Foundation has also donated graphics to Dannemois that will be on display at the House of Culture.
Throughout her career, Niki de Saint Phalle was labeled a ‘woman artist’ and had to prove her art was to be held at the same level as her male counterparts. As a female, sometimes her art wasn’t what was discussed, rather the discussion focused on her appearance, marriage, and children.
“So you’re one of those writer’s wives that paint,”… I felt it
disavowed a really worthwhile life, doing my work quietly
with passion. I considered myself an artist, putting in full
days, working as much as I could on my art. I could not see
how the fact that I was married and not earning a living
from my art reduced my work to a “housewife’s hobby”.
Excerpt quote of Niki de Saint Phalle from ‘Harry and Me’
Saint Phalle wanted to combat the notion of women in their assigned roles, as wives, mothers, and caretakers of the household. She started her shooting paintings, and focused her anger and rage into these paintings/performances.
“Performance art did not yet exist, but this was a performance.
Here I was, an attractive girl (if I had been ugly they would
have said I had a complex and not paid any attention),
screaming against men in my interviews and shooting.”
Niki de Saint Phalle on her shooting paintings
Many articles in the 60’s, while Saint Phalle was doing her shooting paintings, would comment on her appearance and looks, rather than discussing her art.
Newspaper clipping from the Independent, Long Beach, March 22, 1962
Saint Phalle transitioned from her shooting paintings to her works of brides, births, and whores.
Accouchement Rose (Pink Birth), 1964 Detail of Bride or Miss Havershems Dream, 1964
“I could not identify with Mother, our grandmothers, our aunts,
or Mother’s friends. Their territory seemed too restrictive for
my taste… I want the worldthat belonged to men… Very early
I got the message that men had the power and I wanted it.
Yes, I would steal their fire from them. I would not accept the
boundaries that Mother tried to impose on my life because
I was a woman.”
Excerpt quote of Niki de Saint Phalle from ‘Traces’
From there, Saint Phalle’s women evolved into her nanas, large curvy colorful women that dramatized their spiritual independence.
“Why the nanas? Well, first because I am one myself. Because my
work is very personal and I try to express what I feel. It is
the theme that touches me most closely. Since women are oppressed
in today’s society I have tried, in my own personal way, to
contribute to the Women’s Liberation Movement.”
Niki de Sant Phalle, La Metropole, Anvers, 23 February, 1972
Niki de Saint Phalle with unfinished Nanas, 1965, Photographer Unknown
One article, titled ‘Her Sculpted ‘Nanas’ Create a Big Furor’, discussed Niki de Saint Phalle’s attire and what her guests were wearing at the opening of one of her shows. Niki de Saint Phalle continued making her nanas, expanding with materials and in size.
“Long before Women’s Lib became fashionable, or even plausible,
Niki de Saint Phalle was performing her own acts of liberation.”
Brussels Times, March 2, 1972
Many female artist dealt with similar scrutiny and the problems of being a woman artist in the male dominated art world. Artists like Miriam Schapiro and Jann Haworth were artists during the same time as Saint Phalle, working to establish more a female artist presence.
“The assumption was that, as one tutor put it, ‘The girls were
there to keep the boys happy.’ He prefaced that by saying,
’It wasn’t necessary for them to look at the portfolios of the
female students… they just needed to look at their photos’.
From that point, it was head-on competition with the
Quote of Jann Haworth from interview with Tate Magazine, 2004
Galerie Georges-Philippe & Nathalie Vallois in Paris present through October 21st, more than a dozen feminine figures created by Niki de Saint Phalle between 1963 and 1990. The exhibition titled, “Belles! Belles! Belles! Les femmes de Niki de Saint Phalle” (Beautiful! Beautiful! Beautiful! The Women of Niki de Saint Phalle) explores what it is to be a woman according to the artist.
Galerie Vallois entrance, Photographer: Philippine De Merac
In the two gallery spaces (33 & 36 rue de Seine) women sculptures with revolutionary and unconventional shapes welcome the visitors. Ending the exhibition is a video interview of the artist which gives the public one answer. “Are these Nanas a portrait of yourself?” a journalist asks Niki de Saint Phalle. The artist answers, “Yes of course, I am all of them”. Saint Phalle wants women to be free from what she calls the “conneries” (bullshits) of sentimentality, marriage, etc. The video provides a beautiful end to a very rich show. Be sure to check out the show before it comes to an end this Sunday, on October 22, 2017!
During the summer of 1968, Belgian collectors Roger and Fabienne Nellens saw Niki de Saint Phalle’s Nana Dream House. It was a Nana that took on the form of an architectural structure guests could peer and walk into. The couple was inspired to commission the artist to create a play house for their son Xavier, in the garden of their home in Knokke-le-Zoute.
Niki de Saint Phalle had created two larger outdoor architectural projects by this time. In the South of France she had created a collection of three structures, called Le rêve de l’oiseau. One contained the kitchen, one was the living space, and the last had the bathroom. Then, in 1972, Saint Phalle built Golem, a playground commissioned for children in the City of Jerusalem. The black and white monster features a staircase that rounds up into the Golem. This leads children to the mouth of the monster, where they can slide down one of three bright red tongues, one for each religion.
“I have always had a dream of doing architectural things.
It started with my sculptures getting bigger and bigger.”
Reaction of Niki de Saint Phalle, W. News, November 30, 1973
In 1973, with the assistance of Jean Tinguely, Niki built Dragon for young Xavier. Originally, the Nellens had thought the structure would be in the middle of the garden. However, Niki suggested putting it along the hillside.
-Excerpt from Construction of Dragon de Knokke, 1973, footage by Rico Weber
After laying the foundation, the welding of the iron skeletal structure started. Jean Tinguely and Rico Weber could be seen climbing all over the structure as they welded, sometimes long into the night. Once the steel frame was in place, it was then covered in cement. At first the men laid the cement in by hand, then used a method of spraying the concrete onto frame. This method was first used on the Golem and proved effective and was used again later for the monumental sculptures at the Tarot Garden. The concrete was then smoothed by hand with brushes before it was fully set.
As summer approached, Dragon was ready to be painted. Niki de Saint Phalle walked around the bright white creature, outlining the imagery that would cover the Dragon. Then, everyone was put to work on painting, including Roger Nellens. A panther, a spider, snakes, and many other images took shape in bold bright colors across the structure. A Formula 1 race car was also painted on the monster, and the famous driver Jacky Ickx contributed to painting it. Like Golem, Dragon has a tongue slide for Xavier and other children to slide down. The Dragon’s mouth and tongue were painted bright red. The tail that ran through the garden’s hillside was also tattooed with images. Portholes in the roof and the side of the structure illuminated the interior space. Custom windows had to be designed to fit into the monster’s bulbous eyes. A kitchen, bath, toilet, and heating system were also added, while sleeping accommodations were on the second floor. In the end, the structure was 21 feet high and 110 feet long, colorfully painted to stand out against the landscape. Journalists at the time estimated it had cost between $30,000 and $40,000.
-Excerpt from exhibition catalogue Niki de Saint Phalle at Museum Boymans-van Beuningen Rotteram, 1976, photograph: L. Bezzola
Roger had never asked for a building permit for the structure, anticipating that his request would be denied. There were daily visits from the police, warning him against building such a large structure without a permit. However, once the Dragon was completed, even the police couldn’t resist asking for a photo in front of it!
In later years, artist Keith Haring stayed in the Dragon while working on a mural in the Knokke Casino. The Dragon was one of Keith Haring’s most favorite places to work.
“The moon was almost full last night and sleeping inside the
Dragon at the Nellens’ house was really strange… light was
pouring through all the round holes in the windows… Sleeping in
Niki’s dragon is a lot like a dream anyway.”
Excerptquote of Keith Haring from Keith Haring Journals, 2010
He was so inspired by the space and asked Saint Phalle if he could paint a portion of the interior. She was thrilled to accept and now there is a fresco lining the staircase wall. Jean Tinguely also contributed not only to the structure of the Dragon, but to the interior as well with a set of chairs and a lamp.
-Keith Haring’s fresco along the staircase inside the Dragon, source: Google
Since the Dragon’s creation, it has been classified as a Monument Historique of Belgium. People from all over the world have gone knocking on Roger’s door to see it. Despite being on private property, Roger has graciously opened the door of the Dragon for visitors to get a glimpse. He always shares his vivid and joyful memories of Niki de Saint Phalle, Jean Tinguely, and their friends that were part of the creation of the Dragon.
“I would tell her that she and Jean, they were my life. It was my life. My life. My life. My life. I have never had anything like
this in my life. My life changed because of them. We shared each others lives.”
Excerpt quote of Roger Nellens from Interview by Philippe Ungar, March 2011
50 years ago, Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely presented their Fantastic Paradise to the public on the occasion of the Universal Expo 1967 in Montreal, Canada.
A few weeks after HON’s destruction in August 1966, the two artists envisioned a new gigantic and collective project together. This next sensational sculpture group, called : Le Paradis Fantastique in French and Enchanted Garden or Earthly Paradise in the English press, was proposed by Niki de Saint Phalle herself to the French Government for its Pavilion at the Universal Expo, which started end of April 1967.
The short time frame, the heavy extra budget it implied, and some cultural approbations still pending kept the two artists in the dark for few months…
Finally on January 6th, 1967 Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely met with Robert Bordaz, Director of the French Pavilion and unveiled the project model.
The theme ofthe Fantastic Paradise was “Life confronted with the forces of Destruction”. Jean Tinguely’s black and sharp machines symbolically attacked the round and colorful sculptures of Niki de Saint Phalle.
The Director was very interested and agreed to showing it. However, he warned the artists that the budget would be tight. During this meeting they made the decision to exhibit the work in open air, on the terrace of the 7th floor of the futuristic building designated by Jean Forgeron.
So many times we have been taken for some idlers that this
official order of the French government feels to us like a real
rehabilitation! Finally we are no longer cursed.
Reaction of Niki de Saint Phalle on February 28th of 1967 in l’Aurore
Expo67 Montreal The Modern Dream – Extract from L’EXPRESS – March 1967
Following this interview, the two artists feverishly put themselves to work. Their production time was very short. They only had 6 weeks …
In a Parisian workshop in the neighborhood of les Buttes-Chaumont, Niki de Saint Phalle used 300 cubic meters of expanded polystyrene, 2 tons of polyester and 5 miles of fiber glass to give life to 9 gentle monsters, Nana-flowers and other imaginary creatures ranging in height from 10 to over 20 feet.
An enormous workshop in which she and half-a-dozen others
grapple with cyclopean blocks of expanded polystyrene which will be
coated with polyester and painted, once they have been carved.
Art & Artists London, April 1967
Niki de Saint Phalle & Jean Tinguely in the Parisian workshop, March 1967 – Extract from l’EXPRESS, photograph Christian Taillandier
In the meantime Jean Tinguely was producing 6 machines that “threatened” Niki’s whimsical sculptures.
Once the two artists completed their sculptures, the Paradis Fantastique composed itself of:
Le Char Raspoutine (The Rasputine Tank) charging back and forth at Bébé monstre (Baby monster)
La Perceuse (The Drill) ready pierce into La Grosse Nana’ s posterior (The Big Nana)
La Nana embrochée (Skewered Nana) turning on La Machine (The Machine) like a chicken on a spit
La Rotozaza (The Rotozaza) petting La Bête gentille (The Gentle Beast) with its claws
La Folle (The Crazy Girl) swirling in front of La Nana arbre (Nana tree)
Le Piqueur (The Stinger) poking L’Oiseau (The Bird)
La Fleur (The Flower), La Baigneuse (The Swimming Lady) and La Nana sur la Tête (Nana Upside-down)
At the end of March 1967 the 15 sculptures were ready to be packed and transported on board a cargo plane chartered by the French army.
Exhausted from frantic work, Niki lost 15 pounds and had to be hospitalized for pneumonia at the American Hospital in Neuilly.
Even before the inauguration of the Expo67, the International Press was unanimous: endorsing Saint Phalle & Tinguely to represent the French avant-garde at an event of such a magnitude was a bold gesture.
Maybe you never heard of Niki. But you will. My humble prophesy
is she will be the find of the Expo 67.
Montreal Star, Canada, March 25th 1967
Once the works were revealed on April 28th, some critics were enthusiastic and … others outraged.
The only crazy incongruity [...] is on the terrace of the
pavilion where the monstrous "Nanas" of Niki de Saint Phalle
are almost raped by the atrocious machines of Tinguely.
Pourquoi Pas Bruxelles, May 25th 1967
The entire roof deck of the French Pavilion is given over to
a spectacular exhibit of work by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint
Phalle. It’s Expo’s single most impressive sculpture exhibit.
David Bourdon for Art International – September 20th 1967
When Expo67 came to an end in October, the Fantastic Paradise was dismantled. Niki’s sculptures were cut into pieces to travel by truck and be exhibited at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York. The artists had to restore the work but their “fight in paradise” received a much warmer welcome in the press and in the public than in Canada.
The new “Paradis Fantastique” show in the outdoor Sculpture
Garden at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery is one that will bowl
you over, delight, amuse and beguile you.
Buffalo Evening News, November 21st 1967
After Buffalo, the Fantastic Paradise was moved to the Conservatory Garden Lawn, in Central Park, NYC for one year. Over there, too, the public reaction was very favorable.
A small visitor strolls amid Niki’s Nanas and Tinguely machines, and decides that “they can stay on our grass forever” – Extract from New York June 3, 1968, photograph Jill Krementz
At the end of its journey, the question arose about the future of the sculpture group. Pontus Hulten, Director of Moderna Museet in Stockholm, accomplice and longtime friend of the artists offered a solution. He asked them to donate the whole set to the Moderna Museet in exchange of its life-long conservancy and display in the Swedish Capital. Jean and Dominique de Menil, collectors and friends, generously financed its return in Europe.
Since its creation in 1967 Niki de Saint Phalle repainted the Fantastic Paradise but the provoking sculpture can still be enjoyed everyday, outside, on Skeppsholmen an island in central Stockholm.